Contributos da teoria da vinculação para a prática clínica desenvolvimental

Susana Tereno, Inês Matos


As variações da qualidade da vinculação representam condições de iniciação que, em contexto de interação entre factores biológicos e ambientais, desempenham um papel dinâmico no funcionamento bio-psico-social do indivíduo. Este artigo apresenta uma revisão de literatura da teoria e investigação da vinculação na infância e pretende contribuir para uma perspectiva desenvolvimental no exercício da pratica clinica. A investigação na vinculação tem-nos esclarecido, sobre os efeitos nas crianças de experiências precoces associadas: a) a rotinas de cuidados fora de casa (e.g., infantários); b) separações (e.g., hospitalizações); c) perturbações significativas de prestação de cuidados (e.g., adopção e famílias de acolhimento); d) às características das crianças com necessidades especiais. Nesta perspectiva desenvolvimental, a questão das perturbações das relações de vinculação,  assim como as especificidades deste tipo de relação em crianças com determinadas patologias é discutida. São apresentadas orientações clinicas para os clínicos uma vez que os aspectos relacionais são centrais para o desenvolvimento das crianças e consequentemente para a intervenção.


Palavras-chave: Vinculação, Perturbações de vinculação, Necessidades especiais


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