Pretest of images associated with the expertise dimension

Filipe Loureiro, Joana Mello


In this paper we present norms concerning the perceived association that two sets of stimuli (photos of people and photos of objects) establish with the concept of expertise[1]. Participants were presented with a set of words associated to the expertise dimension and subsequently asked to judge each stimulus on how much it was related with the expertise dimension on a 7-point scale (1 - Not at all related; 7 - Very related). The interpretation of means’ confidence intervals allowed us to distinguish between images highly related with the expertise dimension and images highly unrelated with this dimension.  Summarized results are presented and photos made available to support future research requiring stimuli associated with the expertise dimension.

[1] The images pretested in this work are available in the archive of the psychology lab of ISPA-Instituto Universitário. Email:


norms; expertise; people; objects


Aronson, E. (2004). The social animal (9th Ed.). New York: Worth.

Boucher, L. (2011). Individual Differences Influence the Degree of Source Expertise Bias in Syllogistic Reasoning. Thesis submitted to the Faculty of Graduate and Postdoctoral Affairs in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology. Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada

Bradley, M. M., & Lang, P. J. (1999). Fearfulness and affective evaluations of pictures. Motivation and Emotion, 23, 1-13. doi:10.1023/A:1021375216854

Carr, T. H., McCauley, C., Sperber, R. D., & Parmelee, C. M. (1982). Words, pictures, and priming: on semantic activation, conscious identification, and the automaticity of information processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 8, 757-777. doi:10.1037//0096-1523.8.6.757

Chaiken, S. (1987). The heuristic model of persuasion. In M. P. Zanna, J. M. Olson and C. P. Herman (eds.), Social influence: The Ontario Symposium (Volume 5, pp. 3-39), Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Chaiken, S., & Maheswaran, D. (1994). Heuristic processing can bias systematic processing: Effects of source credibility, argument ambiguity, and task importance on attitude judgment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 460-473. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.66.3.460

Clark, J. K. (2014). Antecedents of Message Processing in Persuasion: Traditional and Emergent Perspectives. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 8(10), 595-607. doi:10.1111/spc3.12140

DeBono, K. G., & Harnish, R. (1988). Source expertise, source attractiveness, and the processing of persuasive information: A functional approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55, 541-546. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.55.4.541

Eagly, A., & Chaiken, S. (1993). The Psychology of Attitudes. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich

Gottlieb, J. B., & Sarel, D. (1991). Comparing advertising effectiveness: The role of involvement and source credibility. Journal of Advertising, 20, 38-45. doi:10.1080/00913367.1991.10673205

Heesacker, M. H., Petty, R. E., & Cacioppo, J. T. (1983). Field dependence and attitude change: Source credibility can alter persuasion by affecting message–relevant thinking. Journal of Personality, 51, 653–666. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6494.1983.tb00872.x

Hornikx, J., & Hoeken, H. (2007). Cultural differences in the persuasiveness of evidence types and evidence quality. Communication Monographs, 74(4), 443-463. doi:10.1080/03637750701716578

Hovland, C. I., & Weiss. W. (1951). The influence of source credibility on communication effectiveness. Public Opinion Quarterly, 15, 635-650. doi:10.1086/266350

Jiwa, M., Millett, S., Meng, X., Hewitt, V. M. (2012). Impact of the Presence of Medical Equipment in Images on Viewers’ Perceptions of the Trustworthiness of an Individual On-Screen. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 14(4):e100. doi:10.2196/jmir.1986

Maddux, J. E., & Rogers, R. W. (1980). Effects of source expertness, physical attractiveness, and supporting arguments on persuasion: A case of brains over beauty. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39, 235-244. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.39.2.235

McGinnies, E., & Ward, C. D. (1980). Better liked than right: Trustworthiness and expertise as factors in credibility. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 6, 467-472. doi: 10.1177/014616728063023

Moore, D. L., Hausknecht, D., & Thamodaran, K. (1986). Time Compression, Response Opportunity, and Persuasion. Journal of Consumer Research, 13, 85-99. doi:10.1086/209049

Nguyen, H., & Masthoff, J. (2007). Is it me or is it what I say? Source image and persuasion. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 4744, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany, 231-242, 2nd international conference on Persuasive technology, Palo Alto, CA, United States. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-77006-0_29

Pallak, S. R., Murroni, E., & Koch, J. (1983). Communicator attractiveness and expertise, emotional versus rational appeals, and persuasion: A heuristic versus systematic processing interpret. Social Cognition, 2, 122–141. doi:10.1521/soco.1983.2.2.122

Petty, R. E., & Cacioppo, J. T. (1981). Attitudes and Persuasion: Classic and Contemporary Approaches. Dubuque, IA: William C. Brown.

Petty, R. E., & Cacioppo, J. T. (1986). Communication and Persuasion: Central and Peripheral Routes to Attitude Change. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Petty, R. E., Cacioppo, J. T., & Goldman, R. (1981). Personal involvement as a determinant of argument-based persuasion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 41, 847–855. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.41.5.847

Pornpitakpan, C., & Francis, J. N. P. (2001). The effect of cultural differences, source expertise, and argument strength on persuasion: An experiment with Canadians and Thais. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 13, 77-101. doi:10.1300/J046v13n01_06

Schneider, W., Eschman, A., & Zuccolotto, A. (2002). E-Prime user's guide. Pittsburgh: Psychology Software Tools, Inc.

Tobin, S. J., & Raymundo, M. M. (2009). Persuasion by causal arguments: The motivating role of perceived causal expertise. Social Cognition, 27, 105-127. doi:10.1521/soco.2009.27.1.105

Tormala, Z., L., Briñol, P., Petty, R. E. (2006). When credibility attacks: The reverse impact of source credibility on persuasion. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 42(5), 684-691. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2005.10.005

Wilson, E. J., & Sherrell, D. L. (1993). Source Effects in Communication and Persuasion Research: A Meta-Analysis of Effect Size. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 21(2), 101-112. doi:10.1007/BF02894421



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Nº ERC: 107494 | ISSN (in print): 0870-8231 | ISSN (online): 1646-6020 | Copyright © ISPA - CRL, 2012 | Rua Jardim do Tabaco, 34, 1149-041 Lisboa | NIF: 501313672 | The portal and metadata are licensed under the license Creative Commons CC BY-NC