Validation study of a reduced version of the Geriatric Depression Scale in Portugal

Ana João Santos, Baltazar Nunes, Irina Kislaya, Ana Paula Gil, Oscar Ribeiro

Abstract


The validity of the short Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) version (5 items) was assessed in two samples of older adults aged 60 or more years. Concurrent validity, specificity, and sensitivity were obtained in a convenience sample of 66 individuals (mean of 70 years) by comparison to the Beck Depression Inventory (IDB-II). Factorial analysis was conducted in a population-based sample of 1023 participants (mean of 71 years). The 5-item version of the Geriatric Depression Scale presented adequate internal consistency values and good correlation results with the IDB-II. These results suggest its reliability and adequate sensitivity, and specificity values for screening for depressive symptoms in the elderly population. The results obtained by the Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) suggest that the one-factor model does not have the desired characteristics – one of the items (item 4) may have a lower discriminative power and a better fit in the model obtained by the CFA for 4 items was observed.

Keywords


Geriatric Depression Scale, Reliability, Validity, Depression, Elderly.

References


Aguiar, P. (2007). Guia prático de estatística em investigação epidemiológica: SPSS. Lisboa: Climepsi.

Almeida, O. P., & Almeida, S. A. (1999). Short versions of the Geriatric Depression Scale: A study of their validity for the diagnosis of a major depressive episode according to ICD-10 and DSM-IV. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 14, 858-865. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1099-1166(199910)14:10<858::AID-GPS35>3.0.CO;2-8

American Association for Public Opinion Research. (2011). Standard definitions: Final dispositions of case codes and outcome rates for RDD telephone surveys. Lenexa, KS: American Association for Public Opinion Research.

Apóstolo, J., Loureiro, L., Reis, I., Silva, I., Cardoso, D., & Sfectcu, R. (2014). Contribuição para a adaptação da Geriatric Depression Scale-15 para a língua portuguesa. Revista de Enfermagem Referência, Série IV(3), 65-73.

Argimon, I. I. de L., Paloski, L. H., Farina, M., & Irigaray, T. Q. (2016). Aplicabilidade do Inventário de Depressão de Beck-II em idosos: Uma revisão sistemática. Avaliação Psicológica, 15, 11-17. doi: 10.15689/ap.2016.15ee.02

Baldwin, R. (2004). Management of depression in later life. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 10, 131-139. doi: 10.1192/apt.10.2.131

Barreto, J., Leuschner, A., Santos, F., & Sobral, M. (2008). Escala de depressão geriátrica: Tradução portuguesa da Geriatric Depression Scale. In A. Mendonça & M. Guerreiro (Eds.), Escalas e testes na demência (pp. 37-43). Lisboa.

Bentler, P. M., & Bonett, D. G. (1980). Significance tests and goodness-of-fit in the analysis of covariance structures. Psychological Bulletin, 88, 588-606. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.88.3.588

Campos, R. C., & Gonçalves, B. (2004). Alguns dados sobre a prevalência de sintomatologia depressiva na população universitária portuguesa. In C. Machado, L. Almeida, M. Gonçalves, & V. Ramalho (Eds.), Actas da X Conferência Internacional de Avaliação Psicológica: Formas e contextos (pp. 50-53). Braga: Psiquilibrios Edições.

Canavarro, M. C., Pereira, M., Simões, M. R., Pintassilgo, A. L., & Ferreira, A. (2008). Estudos psicométricos da versão portuguesa (de Portugal) do instrumento de avaliação da qualidade de vida na infecção VIH da Organização Mundial de Saúde (WHOQOL-HIV). Psicologia, Saúde & Doenças, 9, 15-28.

de la Iglesia, J. M., Vilches, M. C. O., Herrero, R. D., Taberné, C. A., Colomer, C. A., & Blanco, M. C. A. (2005). Abreviar lo breve. Aproximación a versiones ultracortas del cuestionario de Yesavage para el cribado de la depresión. Atención Primaria, 35, 14-21. doi: 10.1157/13071040

DeVellis, R. F. (2003). Scale development: Theory and applications. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

Ferraro, F. R., & Chelminski, I. (1996). Preliminary normative data on the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form (GDS-SF) in a young adult sample. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 52, 443-447. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-4679(199607)52:4<443::AID-JCLP9>3.0.CO;2-Q

Gil, A. P. M., Kislaya, I., Santos, A. J., Nunes, B., Nicolau, R., & Fernandes, A. A. (2015). Elder abuse in Portugal: Findings from the first national prevalence study. Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect, 27, 174-195. doi: 10.1080/08946566.2014.953659

Hagtvet, K. A., & Sipos, K. (2016). Creating short forms for construct measures: The role of exchangeable forms. Pedagogika, 66, 689-713. doi: 10.14712/23362189.2016.346

Hosmer, J. D., Lemeshow, S., & Sturdivant, R. (2013). Applied Logistic Regression. Berlin: Wiley.

Hoyl, M. T., Alessi, C. A., Harker, J. O., Josephson, K. R., Pietruszka, F. M., Koelfgen, M., . . . Rubenstein, L. Z. (1999). Development and testing of a five-item version of the Geriatric Depression Scale. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 47, 873-878. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.1999.tb03848.x

Kiernan, B. U., Wilson, D., Suter, N., Naquin, A., & Meltzen, J. (1986). Comparison of the Geriatric Depression Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory in a nursing home. Clinical Gerontologist, 6, 54-56.

Kim, G., DeCoster, J., Huang, C.-H., & Bryant, A. N. (2013). A meta-analysis of the factor structure of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS): The effects of language. International Psychogeriatrics, 25, 71-81. doi: 10.1017/S1041610212001421

McGivney, S. A., Mulvihill, M., & Taylor, B. (1994). Validating the GDS depression screen in the nursing home. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 42, 490-492. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.1994.tb04969.x

Olin, J. T., Schneider, L. S., Eaton, L. M., Zemansky, M. F., & Pollock, V. E. (1992). The Geriatric Depression Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory as screening instruments in an older adult outpatient population. Psychological Assessment, 4, 190-192.

Oliveira-brochado, F., & Oliveira-brochado, A. A. (2008). Estudo da presença de sintomatologia depressiva na adolescência. Revista Portuguesa de Saúde Pública, 26(2), 27-36.

Pilati, R., & Laros, J. A. (2007). Modelos de equações estruturais em psicologia: Conceitos e aplicações. Psicologia: Teoria e Pesquisa, 23, 205-216.

Pocinho, M. T. S. S., Farate, C., Dias, C. A., Lee, T. T., & Yesavage, J. A. (2009). Clinical and psychometric validation of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) for Portuguese elders. Clinical Gerontologist, 32, 223-236. doi: 10.1080/07317110802678680

Pocklington, C., Gilbody, S., Manea, L., & McMillan, D. (2016). The diagnostic accuracy of brief versions of the Geriatric Depression Scale: A systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 31, 837-857. doi: 10.1002/gps.4407

Ribeiro, J. L. P. (2010). Investigação e avaliação em psicologia e saúde. Lisboa: Placebo Editora, Lda.

Rinaldi, P., Mecocci, P., Benedetti, C., & Ercolani, S. (2003). Validation of the five-item Geriatric Depression Scale. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 51, 694-698. doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0579.2003.00216.x

Roman, M. W., & Callen, B. L. (2008). Screening instruments for older adult depressive disorders: Updating the evidence-based toolbox. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 29, 924-941. doi: 10.1080/01612840802274578

Savalei, V., Bonett, D. G., & Bentler, P. M. (2015). CFA with binary variables in small samples: A comparison of two methods. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 1-11. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01515

Scogin, F. (1987). The concurrent validity of the Geriatric Depression Scale with depressed older adults. Clinical Gerontologist: The Journal of Aging and Mental Health, 7, 23-31. doi: 10.1300/J018v07n01_04

Streiner, D. L., & Norman, G. R. (1995). Health measurement scales: A practical guide to their development and use. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Telles-Correia, D., & Barbosa, A. (2009). Ansiedade e depressão em medicina: Modelos teóricos e avaliação. Acta Medica Portuguesa, 22, 89-98.

van Marwijk, H. W., Wallace, P., de Bock, G. H., Hermans, J., Kaptein, A. A., & Mulder, J. D. (1995). Evaluation of the feasibility, reliability and diagnostic value of shortened versions of the geriatric depression scale. The British Journal of General Practice: The Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners, 45(393), 195-199.

Wang, Y., & Gorenstein, C. (2013). Assessment of depression in medical patients: A systematic review of the utility of the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Clinics, 68, 1274-1287. doi: 10.6061/clinics/2013(09)15

Yesavage, J. A. (1988). Geriatric Depression Scale. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 24, 709-711.

Yesavage, J. A., Brink, T. L., Rose, T. L., Lum, O., Huang, V., Adey, M., & Leirer, V. O. (1982). Development and validation of a geriatric depression screening scale: A preliminary report. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 17, 37-49.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.14417/ap.1505

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Nº ERC: 107494 | ISSN (in print): 0870-8231 | ISSN (online): 1646-6020 | Copyright © ISPA - CRL, 2012 | Rua Jardim do Tabaco, 34, 1149-041 Lisboa | NIF: 501313672 | O portal e metadados estão licenciados sob a licença Creative Commons CC BY-NC