Qualidade da amizade na adolescência e ajustamento social no grupo de pares

Miguel Freitas, António J. Santos, Olívia Ribeiro, Margarida Pimenta, Kenneth H. Rubin

Resumo


As amizades na adolescência são fundamentais para o desenvolvimento social, emocional e cognitivo. Porém, diferenças na qualidade da relação com um melhor amigo podem também estar associadas ao ajustamento psicossocial dos adolescentes. Este estudo procurou identificar diferentes perfis de qualidade de amizade, contrastando-os relativamente a dimensões positivas e negativas dessa relação, bem como ao ajustamento social dos adolescentes no grupo de pares. 821 participantes do 7º ano de escolaridade (M=13 anos), reportaram a sua percepção da qualidade da melhor amizade e nomeações sociométricas permitiram aceder às dimensões do ajustamento social no grupo de pares. Uma análise hierárquica de clusters baseados nas dimensões positivas da qualidade de amizade permitiu identificar três tipos de perfis, nomeadamente de qualidade alta, média e baixa (QA, QM, QB), que se distinguiram significativamente na qualidade global e em todas as dimensões positivas da amizade: as amizades QA caracterizaram-se por mais companheirismo, validação, ajuda, suporte, intimidade e estratégias de resolução de conflitos, enquanto as amizades QB foram marcadas por valores inferiores nestas dimensões. Diferenças de sexo demonstraram que as raparigas experienciaram mais partilha de intimidade e validação e cuidado nas suas díades de amizade. Também nos aspectos negativos (conflitos e traições), as amizades QA se distinguiram por apresentarem níveis menos frequentes. Quanto ao ajustamento social, os adolescentes com amizades de alta qualidade foram considerados pelos pares como os menos socialmente retirados, excluídos e vitimizados, mas os mais pró-sociais e populares/sociáveis. Adolescentes com amizades de baixa qualidade foram caracterizados com valores opostos. Estes resultados mostram a importância da amizade neste período do desenvolvimento e permitem compreender, em particular, a influência da qualidade dessa relação no contexto social dos jovens.

Palavras-chave


Adolescência, Qualidade da amizade, Tipos de amizade, Grupo de pares, Ajustamento social.

Texto Completo:

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Referências


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.14417/ap.1551

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