A compreensão da ideia de necessidade lógica em crianças: O efeito das contra-sugestões

Orlando Lourenço

Resumo


O problema da necessidade lógica ou conhecimento necessário é central na teoria de Piaget. Este estudo examinou essa necessidade no desempenho de 80 crianças na prova de conservação de líquidos. Estas crianças tinham sido avaliadas previamente como pré-operatórias (40) ou operatórias (40) com base no seu desempenho numa fase pré-experimental na prova do valor cardinal de um conjunto segundo o típico método clínico Piagetiano. Na fase experimental, recorremos a dois tipos de contra-sugestão estranhamente não usados por Piaget. Os principais resultados mostram que (1) nem todas as crianças pré-operatórias como operatórias tinham a mesma ideia de necessidade lógica, já que algumas mudaram o seu estatuto operatório ou epistémico da fase pré-experimental para a experimental; (2) as crianças recusaram menos uma contra-sugestão não justificada de um adulto perito na noção em jogo do que uma contra-sugestão justificada e provinda de uma criança hipotética da idade da criança entrevistada, sendo este dado mais visível nas crianças pré-operatórias do que operatórias; (3) o argumento operatório da identidade foi o mais invocado pelas crianças operatórias em ambas as provas e o argumento da reversibilidade nunca apareceu; e (4) o argumento da compensação foi mais invocado na prova da conservação de líquidos do que na prova do valor cardinal de um conjunto. Alguns destes resultados são consistentes com a teoria de Piaget, mas outros desafiam-na em extensão considerável.


Palavras-chave


Piaget, Conhecimento necessário, Método clínico, Contra-sugestões, Crianças pré-operatórias e operatórias, Argumentos operatórios.

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Referências


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.14417/ap.1576

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