When does brand matter more than our senses? The influence of touching or smelling experience on product evaluation

Teresa Garcia-Marques, Marília Prada

Abstract


In this work we examine the interaction between brand and direct experience on product evaluation.
Specifically, we selected two products (perfume and paper) whose intrinsic quality can be inferred
directly through sensory experience (i.e., scent and writing experience, respectively). Results from
one field and one laboratorial experiment showed that brand impacts the perception of a product,
overriding the information offered by direct sensory experience with the product. Importantly, this
was more likely to occur in processing conditions that induce low elaboration (e.g., low motivation).
We further discuss how these results contribute to understand the effect as supported by having brand
as a heuristic or promoting a belief that is able to bias our perceptions.

Keywords


Direct experience, Familiarity, Product evaluation, Brand, Quality, Touch, Smell.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Alter, A. L., & Oppenheimer, D. M. (2006). Predicting short-term stock fluctuations using processing fluency. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U103, 9369-9372. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0601071103

Alter, A. L., Oppenheimer, D. M., Epley, N., & Eyre, R. N. (2007). Overcoming intuition: Metacognitive difficulty activates analytic reasoning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 136, 569-576. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-3445.136.4.569

Anees-ur-Rehman, M., Wong, H. Y., & Hossain, M. (2016). The progression of brand orientation literature in twenty years: A systematic literature review. Journal of Brand Management, 23, 612-630. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1057/s41262-016-0008-2

Apaolaza, V., Hartmann, P., Echebarria, C., & Barrutia, J. M. (2017). Organic label’s halo effect on sensory and hedonic experience of wine: A pilot study. Journal of Sensory Studies, 32, e12243. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1111/joss.12243

Bernard, J. C., & Liu, Y. (2017). Are beliefs stronger than taste? A field experiment on organic and local apples. Food Quality and Preference, 61, 55-62. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodqual.2017.05.005

Bhat, S., & Reddy, S. K. (1998). Symbolic and functional positioning of brands. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 15, 32-43. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1108/07363769810202664

Bi, X., Gao, Z., House, L. A., & Hausmann, D. S. (2015). Tradeoffs between sensory attributes and organic labels: The case of orange juice. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 39, 162-171. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1111/ijcs.12164

Clark, J. K., Evans, A. T., & Wegener, D. T. (2011). Perceptions of source efficacy and persuasion: Multiple mechanisms for source effects on attitudes. European Journal of Social Psychology, 41, 596-607. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.787

Claypool, H. M., Mackie, D. M., & Garcia-Marques, T. (2015). Fluency and attitudes. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 9, 370-382. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1111/spc3.12179

Claypool, H. M., Mackie, D. M., Garcia-Marques, T., McIntosh, A., & Udal, A. (2004). The effects of personal relevance and repetition on persuasive processing. Social Cognition, 22, 310-335. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1521/soco.22.3.310.35970

Dawar, N., & Parker, P. (1994). Marketing universals: Consumers’ use of brand name, price, physical appearance, and retailer. Journal of Marketing, 58, 81-95. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.2307/1252271

Dijksterhuis, A. (2004). Think different: The merits of unconscious thought in preference development and decision making. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87, 586-598. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.87.5.586

Elliott, R. (1997). Existential consumption and irrational desire. European Journal of Marketing, 31, 285-296. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1108/03090569710162371

Erdem, T., & Swait, J. (1998). Brand equity as a signaling phenomenon. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 7, 131-157. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327663jcp0702_02

Fornerino, M., & d’Hauteville, F. (2010). How good does it taste? Is it the product or the brand? A contribution to brand equity evaluation. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 19, 34-43. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1108/10610421011018374

Garcia-Marques, T., Fonseca, R., & Blascovich, J. (2015). Familiarity, challenge, and processing of persuasion messages. Social Cognition, 33, 585-604. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1521/soco.2015.33.6.585

Garcia-Marques, T., & Mackie, D. M. (2001). The feeling of familiarity as a regulator of persuasive processing. Social Cognition, 19, 9-34. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1521/soco.19.1.9.18959

Goldkuhl, L., & Styvén, M. (2007). Sensing the scent of service success. European Journal of Marketing, 41, 1297-1305. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1108/03090560710821189

Hoyer, W. D., & Brown, S. P. (1990). Effects of brand awareness on choice for a common, repeat-purchase product. Journal of Consumer Research, 17, 141-148. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1086/208544

Iglesias, O., Markovic, S., & Rialp, J. (2019). How does sensory brand experience influence brand equity? Considering the roles of customer satisfaction, customer affective commitment, and employee empathy. Journal of Business Research, 96, 343-354. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2018.05.043

Inbar, Y., Cone, J., & Gilovich, T. (2010). People’s intuitions about intuitive insight and intuitive choice. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 99, 232-247. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1037/a0020215

Jacoby, J., Szybillo, G. J., & Busato-Schach, J. (1977). Information acquisition behavior in brand choice situations. The Journal of Consumer Research, 3, 209-216. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1086/208669

Johnston, W. A., & Hawley, K. J. (1994). Perceptual inhibition of expected inputs: The key that opens closed minds. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 1, 56-72. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03200761

Koenigs, M., & Tranel, D. (2007). Irrational economic decision-making after ventromedial prefrontal damage: Evidence from the ultimatum game. Journal of Neuroscience, 27, 951-956. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1523/jneurosci.4606-06.2007

LeClerc, F., Schmitt, B., & Dubé, L. (1994). Foreign branding and its effects on product perceptions and attitudes. Journal of Marketing Research, 31, 263-270. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1177/002224379403100209

Lee, W. J., Shimizu, M., Kniffin, K. M., & Wansink, B. (2013). You taste what you see: Do organic labels bias taste perceptions?. Food Quality and Preference, 29, 33-39. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodqual.2013.01.010

Levin, I. P., & Gaeth, G. J. (1988). How consumers are affected by the framing of attribute information before and after consuming the product. Journal of Consumer Research, 15, 374-378. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1086/209174

Maheswaran, D., Mackie, D. M., & Chaiken, S. (1992). Brand name as a heuristic cue: The effects of task importance and expectancy confirmation on consumer judgments. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 1, 317-336. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1016/S1057-7408(08)80058-7

Meiselman, H. L., & Bell, R. (1991). The effects of name and recipe on the perceived ethnicity and acceptability of selected Italian foods by British subjects. Food Quality and Preference, 3, 209-214. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1016/0950-3293(91)90035-d

Morris, C. (2018). Impact of product name and seasonal context on the sensory evaluation of a seasonally themed beverage. Journal of Sensory Studies, 33, e12320. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1111/joss.12320

Moreira, A. C., Fortes, N., & Santiago, R. (2017). Influence of sensory stimuli on brand experience, brand equity and purchase intention. Journal of Business Economics and Management, 18, 68-83. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.3846/16111699.2016.1252793

Oxoby, R. J., & Finnigan, H. (2007). Developing heuristic-based quality judgments: Blocking in consumer choice. Psychology & Marketing, 24, 295-313. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1002/mar.20162

Petty, R. E., & Briñol, P. (2010). Attitude change. In R. F. Baumeister & E. J. Finkel (Eds.), Advanced social psychology: The state of the science (pp. 217-259). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Petty, R. E., Briñol, P., Teeny, J., & Horcajo, J. (2018). The elaboration likelihood model: Changing attitudes toward exercising and doping. In B. Jackson, J. A. Dimmock, & J. Compton (Eds.), Persuasion and communication in sport, exercise, and physical activity (pp. 22-37). Abingdon: Routledge.

Petty, R. E., & Cacioppo, J. T. (1986). The elaboration likelihood model of persuasion. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 19, pp. 123-205). New York, NY: Academic Press.

Rao, A. R., & Ruekert, R. W. (1994). Brand alliances as signals of product quality. Sloan Management Review, 36, 87-97.

Roberts, M. L., & Taylor, J. R. (1975). Analyzing proximity judgments in an experimental design. Journal of Marketing Research, 12, 68-72. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.2307/3150660

Schifferstein, H. N. J., Kole, A. P. W., & Mojet, J. (1999). Asymmetry in the disconfirmation of expectations for natural yogurt. Appetite, 32, 307-329. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1006/appe.1998.0208

Scott, C. A., & Yalch, R. F. (1980). Consumer response to initial product trial: A bayesian analysis. Journal of Consumer Research, 7, 32-41. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1086/208790

Shankar, M. U., Levitan, C. A., Prescott, J., & Spence, C. (2009). The influence of color and label information on flavor perception. Chemosensory Perception, 2, 53-58. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1007/s12078-009-9046-4

Shiv, B., Edell, J. A., & Payne, J. W. (1997). Factors affecting the impact of negatively and positively framed ad messages. Journal of Consumer Research, 24, 285-294. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1086/209510

Sprott, D. E., & Shimp, T. A. (2004). Using product sampling to augment the perceived quality of store brands. Journal of Retailing, 80, 305-315. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretai.2004.10.006

Thompson, V. A., Turner, J. A. P., Pennycook, G., Ball, L. J., Brack, H., Ophir, Y., & Ackerman, R. (2013). The role of answer fluency and perceptual fluency as metacognitive cues for initiating analytic thinking. Cognition, 128, 237-251. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2012.09.012

Tsai, S.-P. (2005). Utility, cultural symbolism and emotion: A comprehensive model of brand purchase value. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 22, 277-291. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijresmar.2004.11.002

Wernerfelt, B. (1988). Umbrella branding as a signal of new product quality: An example of signalling by posting a bond. RAND Journal of Economics, 19, 458-466. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/2555667

Woolfolk, M. E., Castellan, W., & Brooks, C. I. (1983). Pepsi versus Coke: Labels, not tastes, prevail. Psychological Reports, 52, 185-186. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1983.52.1.185

Zajonc, R. B. (1968). Attitudinal effects of mere exposure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 9, 1-27. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1037/h0025848




DOI: https://doi.org/10.14417/ap.1725

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.