Teoria da mente e pensamento contrafactual em crianças de baixo nível socioeconómico

Célia Rasga, Ana Cristina Quelhas, Marta Couto, João Marques

Resumo


O nosso trabalho propõe explorar a compreensão das crianças de baixo nível socioeconómico acerca das razões que os outros têm para as acções, ou seja, pretendemos explorar o efeito do conhecimento sobre as razões para as acções, aquando de raciocínios contrafactuais e de falsas crenças, ampliando-o ao desenvolvimento das crianças. Trabalhos anteriores mostraram que as pessoas tendem a pensar sobre as acções de forma diferente quando têm conhecimentos sobre as razões para uma acção. Um passo importante para a compreensão das acções de outras pessoas é o raciocínio sobre as suas intenções (Juhos, Quelhas, & Byrne, 2015; Walsh & Byrne, 2007).

Crianças de 6 e 8 anos foram testadas com uma nova tarefa: a tarefa de mudanças de intenções, a qual analisou cenários onde um actor tem uma razão inicial (desejo ou obrigação) para uma acção, que é posteriormente alterada. Os resultados mostraram que as crianças de 6 anos cometem mais erros nas inferências de falsas crenças do que nas inferências contrafactuais, uma vez que estas crianças tendem a centrar-se mais nos desejos aquando de inferências de falsas crenças. Estes resultados contribuem para a discussão aberta sobre a relação entre o pensamento contrafactual e a teoria da mente, como também traz alguma luz sobre como as crianças pensam as diferentes razões para as acções.


Palavras-chave


Teoria da Mente, Pensamento Contrafactual, Intenções, Crianças

Texto Completo:

PDF

Referências


Byrne, R. M. J. (2005). The rational imagination: How people create alternatives to reality. Cambridge, M.A: MIT Press.

Byrne, R. M., & A. Tasso. 1999. Deductive reasoning with factual, possible, and counterfactual conditionals. Memory & Cognition 27(4), 726–740.

Cutting, A., & Dunn, J. (1999). Theory of mind, emotion understanding, language, and family background: Individual differences and interrelations. Child Development, 70, 853–863.

Davidson, D. (1963). Actions, reasons, and causes. Journal of Philosophy, 60, 685– 700.

Dias, M. G., & Harris, P. L (1988a). The effect of make-believe play on deductive reasoning. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 6, 207-221.

Dunn, J., Brown, J., Slomkowski, C., Tesla, C., & Youngblade L. (1991). Young children’s understanding of other people’s feelings and beliefs: Individual differences and their antecedents. Child Development, 62, 1352-1366.

Fausey, C.M., Long, B.L., Inamori, A. & Boroditsky, L. (2010). Constructing agency: the role of language. Frontiers in Psychology, 1, 162.

Feinfield, K.A., Lee, P.P., Flavell, E.R., Green, F.L., & Flavell, J.H. (1999). Young children’s understanding of intention. Cognitive Development, 14, 3, 463-486.

Gopnik, A., & Slaughter, V. (1991). Young children's understanding of changes in their mental states. Child development, 62(1), 98-110.

Grant, M. G., & Mills, C. M. (2010). Children's explanations of the intentions underlying others' behaviour. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 29(3), 504-523.

Greenfield, P. M., Keller, H., Fuligni, A., & Maynard, A. (2003). Cultural pathways

through universal development. Annual review of psychology, 54(1), 461-490.

Guajardo, N. R., & Turley-Ames, K. J. (2004). Preschoolers’ generation of different types of counterfactual statements and theory of mind understanding. Cognitive Development, 19(1), 53-80.

Guajardo, N. R., Parker, J., & Turley-Ames, K. J. (2009). Associations among false belief understanding, counterfactual reasoning, and executive function. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 29, 681-702.

Harris, P. L. (2000). The work of the imagination. Oxford: Blackwell.

Hart, B., & Risley, T. R. (1995). Meaningful differences in the ev- eryday experience of young American children. Baltimore: Brookes.

Holmes, H. A., Black, C., & Miller, S. A. (1996). A cross-task comparison of false belief understanding in a Head Start population. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 63, 263-285.

Janoff-Bulman, R., & Leggatt, H. K. (2002). Culture and social obligation: When “shoulds” are perceived as “wants”. Journal of Research in Personality, 36(3), 260-270.

Jenkins, J. M., & Astington, J. W. (1996). Cognitive factors and family structure associated with theory of mind development in young children. Developmental Psychology, 32(1), 70-78.

Joseph, R. M., & Tager-Flusberg, H. (1999). Preschool children’s understanding of the desire and knowledge constraints on intended action. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 17, 221-243.

Juhos, C., Quelhas, A.C. & Byrne, R.M.J. (2015). Reasoning about intentions: Counterexamples to reasons for actions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory & Cognition, 41(1), Jan 2015, 55-76.

Knobe, J. (2006). The concept of intentional action: A case study in the uses of folk psychology. Philosophical Studies, 130, 203-31.

Knobe, J. (2010). Person as scientist, person as moralist. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 33, 353-365.

Leslie, A. M., Knobe, J., & Cohen, A. (2006). Acting intentionally and the side-effect effect: Theory of mind and moral judgment. Psychological Science, 17, 421- 427.

Libet, B., Gleason, C.A., Wright, E.W. & Pearl, D.K. (1983). Time of conscious intention to act in relation to onset of cerebral activity (readiness-potential): the unconscious initiation of a freely voluntary act. Brain, 106, 623-642.

Lillard, A. S. (1998). Theories behind theories of mind. Human Development, 41, 40- 46.

Lucariello, J. (2004). New insights into the functions, development, and origins of theory of mind: The “Functional-Multilinear Socialization” (FMS) Model. The development of the mediated mind: Sociocultural context and cognitive development, 33-57.

Malle, B.F. & Knobe, J. (1997). The folk concept of intentionality. Journal of

Experimental Social Psychology, 33, 101-121.

Marcellini, F., Giuli, C., Gagliardi, C., & Papa, R. (2007). Aging in Italy: Urban–rural diferences. Archives of gerontology and geriatrics, 44, 243-260.

Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological Review, 98, 224-253.

McCloy, R., & Byrne, R. (2000). Counterfactual thinking about controllable actions. Memory & Cognition, 28, 1071-1078.

Meltzoff, A. N. (1995). Understanding the intentions of others: re-enactment of intended acts by 18-month-old children. Developmental psychology, 31(5), 838.

Miller, S. A. (2009). Children’s understanding of second-order mental states. Psychological bulletin, 135(5), 749-773.

Miller, G. & Johnson-Laird, P.N. (1976). Language and perception. Harvard: Harvard University Press.

Müller, U., Miller, M. R., Michalczyk, K., & Karapinka, A. (2007). False belief understanding: The influence of person, grammatical mood, counterfactual reasoning and working memory. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 25(4), 615-632.

Perner, J. (1991). Understanding the representational mind. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Perner,J. (2000). About + belief + counterfactual. In P. Mitchell & K.J. Riggs (Eds.) Children’s reasoning and the mind (p. 367-401). Hove: Psychology Press.

Perner, J., Sprung, M., & Steinkogler, B. (2004). Counterfactual conditionals and false belief: A developmental dissociation. Cognitive Development, 19, 179- 201.

Peterson, D. M., & Bowler, D. M. (2000). Counterfactual reasoning and false belief understanding in children with autism. Autism, 4(4), 391-405.

Peterson, D. .M., & Riggs, K. (1999). Adaptive modeling and mindreading. Mind &

Language, 4, 80-112.

Premack, D., & Woodruff, G. (1978). Does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind? The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 4, 515-526.

Repacholi, B. M., & Gopnik, A. (1997). Early reasoning about desires: Evidence from 14- and 18-month-olds. Developmental Psychology, 33 (1), 12-21.

Rafetseder, E., Schwitalla, M., & J. Perner (2013). Counterfactual reasoning: From childhood to adulthood. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 114(3), 389-404.

Rasga, C., Quelhas, A. C. 2009. O efeito de ordem temporal no pensamento contrafactual das crianças, Análise Psicológica, 27 (1) 45-63.

Rasga, C., Quelhas, A. C., & Byrne, R. M. J. (submetido). Children’s reasoning about others intentions: False-belief and counterfactual inferences.

Riggs, K. J., Peterson, D. M., Robinson, E. J., & Mitchell, P. (1998). Are errors in false belief tasks symptomatic of a broader difficulty with counterfactuality? Cognitive Development, 13 (1), 73-90.

Roazzi, A., & Bryant, P. (1997). Explicitness and Conservation: Social class differences. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 21(1), 52-70.

Robinson, E. J., & Beck, S. R. (2000). What is difficult about counterfactual reasoning? In P. Mitchell & K. J. Riggs (Eds.), Children’s reasoning and the mind (pp. 101-119). Hove, UK: Psychology Press.

Sachdeva, S., Singh, P., & Medin, D. (2012). Culture and the quest for universal principles in moral reasoning. International Journal of Psychology, 46(3), 161-176.

Saxe, R., Tenenbaum, J. B., & Carey, S. (2005). Secret agents inferences about hidden causes by 10-and 12-month-old infants. Psychological Science, 16(12), 995-1001.

Searle, J. R. (1983). Intentionality: An essay in the philosophy of mind. New "Vbrk: Cambridge University Press.

Shatz, M., Diesendruck, G., Martinez-Beck, I., & Akar, D. (2003). The influence of language and socioeconomic status on children's understanding of false belief. Developmental Psychology, 39, 717-729.

Schult, C. A. (2002). Children’s understanding of the distinction between intentions and desires. Child Development, 73, 1727-1747.

Triandis, H. C. (1989). The self and social behavior in differing cultural contexts. Psychological Review, 98, 506-520.

Walsh, C. R., & Byrne, R. M. J. (2007). The effects of reasons for acting on counterfactual thinking. Thinking & Reasoning, 13, 461-483.

Wellman, H. M. (1990). The Child’s Theory of Mind. Cambridge, MA: Bradford Books/MIT Press.

Wellman, H. M., Cross, D., & Watson, J. (2001). Meta-analysis of theory-of-mind development: The truth about false belief. Child Development, 72, 655-684.

Wellman, H. M., Lopez-Duran, S., LaBounty, J., & Hamilton, B. (2008). Infant attention. Developmental psychology, 44(2), 618.

Van Hoeck, N., Begtas, E., Steen, J., Kestemont, J., Vandekerckhove, M., & Van Yagnik, L. R., & Teraiya, D. (1999). A study of beliefs and attitudes of urban and rural people towards some social issues. Social Science International, 15(2), 55-67.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.14417/ap.1186

Apontamentos

  • Não há apontamentos.


Nº ERC: 107494 | ISSN (in print): 0870-8231 | ISSN (online): 1646-6020 | Copyright © ISPA - CRL, 2012 | Rua Jardim do Tabaco, 34, 1149-041 Lisboa | NIF: 501313672 | O portal e metadados estão licenciados sob a licença Creative Commons CC BY-NC