Aspetos psicofisiológicos da interação mãe/pai-bebé

Sara Pereira, Raquel Costa, Catarina Tojal, Iva Tendais


Apesar de se conhecer a importância da qualidade dos comportamentos na interação mãe-bebé e pai-bebé, pouco se conhece sobre os aspetos fisiológicos que lhes estão subjacentes. Objectivo: descrever a resposta fisiológica de mães e pais durante a interação com os filhos. Para o efeito registou-se a frequência cardíaca, a arritmia sinusal respiratória e a condutância da pele de 24 mães e 13 pais durante a interacção com o bebé de acordo com o protocolo Face-to-Face Still-Face (FFSF). Resultados: Verifica-se um aumento da frequência cardíaca durante o episódio face-a-face, uma diminuição no episódio still-face e novo aumento no episódio de recuperação. Verifica-se uma diminuição da arritmia sinusal respiratória durante o episódio face-a-face, um aumento no episódio still-face e nova diminuição no episódio de recuperação. No que diz respeito à condutância da pele, as respostas de mães e pais seguem padrões diferentes: nas mulheres verifica-se um aumento durante o episódio face-a-face, uma diminuição no episódio still-face e novo aumento no episódio de recuperação enquanto que nos homens verifica-se aumento consecutivo da condutância da pele ao longo do procedimento FFSF. Conclusão:

Este estudo contribui para a compreensão das respostas fisiológicas de mães e pais durante a interação com os seus bebés.


Interação mãe-bebé, Interação pai-bebé, Resposta fisiológica, Face-to-face still-face, Arritmia sinusal respiratória, Frequência cardíaca, Condutância da pele


Ablow, J., Marks, A., Feldman, S., & Huffman, L. (2013). Associations Between First-Time Expectant Women's Representations of Attachment and Their Physiological Reactivity to Infant Cry. Child Development, 84 (4), 1373–1391. doi: 10.1111/cdev.12135

Alaerts K, Nackaerts E, Meyns P, Swinnen SP, Wenderoth N (2011) Action and Emotion Recognition from Point Light Displays: An Investigation of Gender Differences. PLoS ONE, 6(6): e20989. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0020989.

Araguen, L., & Dorado, J. (2000). Psicofisiologia: fundamentos metodológicos. Madrid: Edições Piramide.

Butler, E., Wilhelm, F., & Gross, J. (2006). Respiratory sinus arrhythmia, emotion, and emotion regulation during social interaction. Psychophysiology, 43(1), 612–622. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8986.2006.00467.x

Cacioppo, J., T., Tassinary, L., G., & Berntson, G. (2007). Handbook of psychophysiology (3rd ed). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Coles, M., Donchin, E., & Porges, S., W. (1986). Psychophysiology: systems, processes and applications. New York: The Guilford Press.

Conradt, E., & Ablow, J., (2010). Infant physiological response to the still-face paradigm: Contributions of maternal sensitivity and infants’ early regulatory behavior. Infant Behavior & Development, 33 (1), 251–265. doi:10.1016/j.infbeh.2010.01.001

Costa, R. (2009). Infants’ psychophysiological profile and temperament at 3 and 12 months. Infant Behavior & Development, 34(2), 270-279.

Gentzler, A. L., Santucci, A. K., Kovacs, M., & Fox, N. A. (2009). Respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity predicts emotion regulation and depressive symptoms in at-risk and control children. Biological Psychology, 82, 156-163. doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2009.07.002

Geus, E., Willemsen, G., Klaver, C., van Doornen, L. (1995). Ambulatory measurement of respiratory sinus arrhythmia and respiration rate. Biological Psychiatry, 41, 205-227.

Glass, D. (1967). Neurophysiology and emotion. New York: Rockefeller University Press

Gunning, M., Halligan, A., & Murray, L. (2013). The global ratings of mother-infant interaction - scoring manual (2nd ed.). Reading: Winnicott Research Unit, University of Reading.

Guyton, A. (1992). Tratado de fisiologia médica (8th ed). Saunders Company W. B.

Ham, J., & Tronick, E., (2009). Relational psychophysiology: Lessons from mother–infant physiology research on dyadically expanded states of consciousness. Psychotherapy Research, 19(6), 619-632. DOI: 10.1080/10503300802609672

Ham, J.; & Tronick, E. (2007). Infant resilience to the stress of the still-face: infant and maternal psychophysiology are related. New York Academy of Sciences. 1094(1), 297–302. doi: 10.1196/annals.1376.038

Hampson, E., van Anders, S., M., & Mullin, L., I., (2006). A female advantage in the recognition of emotional facial expressions: Test of an evolutionary hypothesis. Evolution and Human Behavior, 27(6), 401-416. doi:10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2006.05.002

Harrison, T., & Feree, A. (2014) Maternal–infant interaction and autonomic function in healthy infants and infants with transposition of the great arteries.Nursing & Health, 37(1), 490–503. doi: 10.1002/nur.21628

Hastings, P., D.; Nuselovici, J., N.; Utendale, W., T.; Coutya, J.; McShane, K., E.; & Sullivan, C., (2008).Applying the polyvagal theory to children’s emotion regulation: Social context, socialization, and adjustment.Biological Psychology, 79 (1), 299–306.

Hill-Soderlund, A. L.,Mills-Koonce, W. R., Propper, C. B., Calkins, S. D., Granger, D.,Moore, G., Gariepy, L., & Cox, M. (2008). Parasympathetic and sympathetic response to the Strange Situation in infants and mothers from avoidant and securely attached dyads. Developmental Psychobiology, 50 (1), 361-376.

Hofmann, S. G., Suvak, M., & Litz, B. T. (2006). Sex differences in face recognition and influence of facial affect. Personality and Individual Differences, 40, 1683-1690.

Hugdahl, K. (1995). Psychophysiology: the mind-body perspective. London: Harvard University Press.

Joosen, K. J., Mesman, J. Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & Van IJzendoorn, M.H. (2013). Maternal overreactive sympathetic nervous system responses to repeated infant crying predicts risk for impulsive harsh discipline of infants. Child Maltreatment, 18, 252- 263. doi: 10.1177/1077559513494762

Kolb, B., & Whishaw, I. (2009). Fundamentals of human neuropsychology (6th ed). University of Lethbridge Worth Publishers.

Kothari, R., 1, Skuse, D., Wakefield, J., & Micali, N., J., (2013). Gender differences in the relationship between social communication and emotion recognition. Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 52(11), 1148-1157. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2013.08.006. Epub 2013 Aug 26.

Low, L., Seng, J., & Miller, J. (2008). Use of the Optimality Index–United States in Perinatal Clinical Research: A Validation Study. American College of Nurse-Midwives, 53(4), 302-309. doi:10.1016/j.jmwh.2008.01.009

Maroco, J. (2007). Análise estatística com utilização do SPSS. Lisboa: Edições Silabo.

Mesman, J., IJzendoorn, M., & Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. (2009) The many faces of the Still-Face Paradigm: A review and meta-analysis. Developmental Review. doi:10.1016/j.dr.2009.02.001

Moore, G., A., Hill-Soderlund, A., L., Propper, C., B., Calkins, S., D., Mills-Koonce, W., R., & Cox, M., J., (2009). Mother–Infant Vagal Regulation in the Face-To-Face Still-Face Paradigm Is Moderated by Maternal Sensitivity. Child Development, 80(1), 209–223. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2008.01255.x

Oppenheimer, J., Measelle, J., Laurent, H., & Ablow, J. (2013). Mothers’ vagal regulation during the Still-Face Paradigm: Normative reactivity and impact of depression symptoms. Infant Behavior & Development, 36 (1), 255– 267.

Parmley, M., & Cunningham, J., G., (2014). She looks sad, but he looks mad: the effects of age, gender, and ambiguity on emotion perception. J Soc Psychol, 154(4), 323-38.

Porges, S., W., (2003). The Polyvagal Theory: phylogenetic contributions to social behavior. Physiology & Behavior, 79(1), 503– 513. doi:10.1016/S0031-9384(03)00156-2

Seng, J., Mugisha, E., & Miller, J. (2008). Reliability of a perinatal outcomes measure: The optimality Index- US. Journal of Midwifery Women’s Health, 53(2), 110-114.

Seyle, H. (1974). Stress without distress. New York: Lippincott

Tronick, E, Z,, Als, H,, Adamson, L,, Wise, S,, & Brazelton, T, B, (1978), The infant's response to entrapment between contradictory messages in face-to-face interaction, Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 17(1), 1-13.

Velandia, M., Uvnäs-Moberg, K., & Nissen, E., (2011). Sex differences in newborn interaction with mother or father during skinto-skin contact after Caesarean section. Acta Pædiatrica, 101 (1). 360–367. DOI:10.1111/j.1651-2227.2011.02523.x

Weiss, E., M., Kohler, C., G., Brensinger, C., M., Bilker, W., B., Loughead, J., & Delazer, M., (2007). Gender differences in facial emotion recognition in persons with chronic schizophrenia. European psychiatry, 22 (2), 116-122

Willemsen, G., de Geus, E., Klaver, C., van Doornen, L., & Carroll, D. (1996). Ambulatory moni- toring of the impedance cardiogram. Psychophysiology, 33 (1), 184–193



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Nº ERC: 107494 | ISSN (in print): 0870-8231 | ISSN (online): 1646-6020 | Copyright © ISPA - CRL, 2012 | Rua Jardim do Tabaco, 34, 1149-041 Lisboa | NIF: 501313672 | The portal and metadata are licensed under the license Creative Commons CC BY-NC