Translation, adaptation and psychometric properties study of the Participation and Environment Measure for Children and Youth (PEM-CY)

Susana Oliveira-Martins, Manuela Sanches-Ferreira


This study goals where to translate and culturally adapt the PEM-CY: Participation and Environment Measure for Children and Youth and also to present its psychometric properties in the portuguese population. This instrument examines the perception of caregivers of children with and without disabilities on participation frequency, involvement and desire of change in typical activities in home, school and community settings; it also examines wich context factors affect participation. PEM-CY was completed by the parents/caregivers of 390 children, aged 5-17 years, of which 152 were reported as having disability. Internal consistency ranged from .67 to .86, except for school context frequency. Test-retest reliability values were all above .68. In what concerns criterion validity, significant differences in parent’s responses of children with and without disabilities were found in all 3 settings. Results obtained indicate the portuguese translation of PEM-CY as a valid measure for achieving understanding on how children with and without disabilities participate in different settings, according to parents perspectives.


Special education, Participation, Measure, Translation and cultural adaptation, Psychometric.


Bedell, G. (2009). Further validation of the Child and Adolescent Scale of Participation (CASP). Developmental Neurorehabilitation, 12, 342-351. doi: 10.1080/0269905031000110517

Bedell, G., & Dumas, H. (2004). Social participation of children and youth with acquired brain injuries discharged from inpatient rehabilitation: A follow-up study. Brain Injury, 18, 65-82.

Bedell, G., Khetani, M., Cousins, M., Coster, W., & Law, M. (2011). Parent perspectives to inform development of measures of children’s participation and environment. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 92, 765-773. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2010.12.029

Coster, W., Bedell, G., Law, M., Khetani, M., Teplicky, R., Liljenquist, K., & Kao, Y. (2011). Psychometric evaluation of the Participation and Environment Measure for Children and Youth. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 53, 1030-1037. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8749.2011.04094.x

Coster, W., & Khetani, M. (2008). Measuring participation of children with disabilities: Issues and challenges. Disability Rehabilitation, 30, 639-648. doi: 10.1080/09638280701400375

Dunst, C., Hamby, D., Trivette, C., Raab, M., & Bruder, M. (2002). Young children’s participation in everyday family and community activity. Psychological Reports, 91, 875-897.

Eccles, J., Barber, L., Stone, M., & Hunt, J. (2003). Extracurricular activities and adolescent development. Journal of Social Issues, 59, 865-869. doi: 10.2466/PR0.91.7.875-897

Eriksson, L. (2005). The relationship between school environment and participation for students with disabilities. Pediatric Rehabilitation, 8, 130-139. doi: 10.1080/13638490400029977

Fauconnier, J., Dickinson, H., Beckung, E., Marcelli, M., Mcmanus, V., Michelsen, S., & Colver, A. (2009). Participation in life situations of 8-12 year old children with cerebral palsy: Cross sectional European study. BMJ, 338, b1458. doi: 10.1136/bmj.b1458

Fayers, P., & Hand, D. (2002). Causal variables, indicator variables, and measurement scales, with discussion. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 165, 233-261.

Field, A. (2013). Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS Statistics: And sex and drugs and rock ‘n’roll (4th ed.). London: Sage publications.

Fleiss, J. (1981). Statistical methods for rates and proportions (2nd ed.). New York: John Wiley.

Guillemin, F., Bombardier, C., & Beaton, D. (1993). Cross-cultural adaptation of health-related quality of life measures: Literature review and proposed guidelines. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 46, 1417-1432. doi: 10.1002/0471445428

King, G., Law, M., King, S., Hurley, P., Hanna, S., Kertoy, M., Rosenbaum, P., & Young, N. (2004). Children’s assessment of participation and enjoyment (CAPE) and preferences for activities of children (PAC). San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Assessment.

King, G., Mcdougall, J., Dewit, D., Petrenchik, T., Hurley, P., & Law, M. (2009). Predictors of change over time in the activity participation of children and youth with physical disabilities. Child Health Care, 38, 321-351. doi: 10.1080/02739610903237352

Law, M. (2002). Participation in the occupations of everyday life. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 56, 640-649. doi: 10.5014/ajot.56.6.640

Mancini, M., Coster, W., Trombly, C., & Heeren, T. (2000). Predicting elementary school participation in children with disabilities. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 81, 339-347. doi: 10.1016/S0003-9993(00)90081-9

Mâsse, L., Miller, A., Shen, J., Schiariti, V., & Roxborough, L. (2012). Comparing participation in activities among children with disabilities. Research Development and Disability, 33, 2245-2254. doi: 10.1016/j.ridd.2012.07.002

Michelsen, S., Flachs, E., Uldall, P., Eriksen, E., Mcmanus, V., Parkes, J., . . . Colver, A. (2009). Frequency of participation of 8-12-year-old children with cerebral palsy: A multi-centre cross-sectional European study. European Journal of Paediatric Neurology, 13, 165-177. doi: 10.1016/j.ejpn.2008.03.005

Moreira, J. (2004). Questionários: Teoria e prática. Coimbra, Portugal: Almedina.

Organização Mundial de Saúde [OMS]. (2003). Manual da classificação internacional da funcionalidade, incapacidade e saúde. Lisboa: Direcção-Geral da Saúde.

Raab, M. (2005). Characteristics and consequences of everyday child learning opportunities. CASEmakers, 1, 1-5.

Rosenberg, L., Jarus, T., & Bart, O. (2010). Development and initial validation of the Children Participation Questionnaire (CPQ). Disability and Rehabilitation, 32, 1633-1644. doi: 10.3109/09638281003611086

Tuffrey, C., Bateman, B., & Colver, A. (2013). The Questionnaire of Young People’s Participation (QYPP): A new measure of participation frequency for disabled young people. Child: Care, Health and Development, 39, 500-511. doi: 10.1111/cch.12060



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Nº ERC: 107494 | ISSN (in print): 0870-8231 | ISSN (online): 1646-6020 | Copyright © ISPA - CRL, 2012 | Rua Jardim do Tabaco, 34, 1149-041 Lisboa | NIF: 501313672 | The portal and metadata are licensed under the license Creative Commons CC BY-NC