Prevalência e preditores da Síndrome de Burnout entre professores do ensino básico público

Mary Sandra Carlotto, Sheila Gonçalves Câmara

Resumo


Burnout é um fenómeno psicossocial, expressão de várias crises e desorientação na sociedade, o que tem submetido muitos setores laborais a grande tensão ao longo dos anos. A profissão docente está exposta, no contexto laboral atual, a uma grande quantidade de fatores de estresse psicossocial que, se persistentes, podem levar ao Burnout. O objetivo desse estudo transversal foi identificar a prevalência e os preditores da Síndrome de Burnout (SB) em uma amostra aleatória de 679 professores brasileiros de 37 escolas públicas de ensino básico. Os instrumentos foram o Spanish Burnout Inventory, a Bateria de Riscos Psicossociais e um questionário com variáveis sociodemográficas e laborais. Foi identificada uma prevalência de 7,5% para o Perfil 1 de SB e 18,3% para o Perfil 2 de SB. Os resultados indicaram como preditores das dimensões de Burnout as variáveis autonomia, conflito de papel, ambiguidade de papel, sobrecarga, suporte social e conflitos interpessoais. Os resultados demonstram modelos preditores das dimensões de Burnout compostos de riscos psicossociais derivados do tipo de atividade e dos riscos interpessoais, destacando as variáveis suporte social e sobrecarga, presentes em todas as dimensões. São apresentadas sugestões para estudos futuros e implicações para a prática.

Palavras-chave


Burnout, Professores de escola, Saúde ocupacional.

Texto Completo:

PDF (English)

Referências


Ahola, K., Väänänen, A., Koskinen, A., & Shirom, A. (2010). Burnout as a predictor of all-cause mortality among industrial employees: A 10-year prospective registerlinkage study. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 69, 51-57. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2010.01.002

Amazarray, M. R., Câmara, S. G., & Carlotto, M. S. (2014). Investigação em saúde mental e trabalho no âmbito da saúde pública no Brasil. In A. R. C. Merlo, C. G. Bottega, & K. V. Perez (Eds.), Atenção à saúde mental do trabalhador: Sofrimento e transtornos psíquicos relacionados ao trabalho (pp. 75-92). Porto Alegre: Evangraf.

Bland, J., & Altman, D. (1997). Statistics notes: Cronbach’s alpha. British Medical Journal, 314, 570-572.

Brouwers, A., Tomic, A., & Boluijt, H. (2011). Job demands, job control, social support and self-efficacy beliefs as determinants of burnout among physical education teachers. Europe’s Journal of Psychology, 7, 17-39. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5964/ejop.v7i1.103

Carlotto, M. S. (2012). Síndrome de Burnout em professores: Avaliação, fatores associados e intervenção. Porto, Portugal: LivPsic.

Carlotto, M. S., & Câmara, S. G. (2008). Análise da produção científica sobre a síndrome de Burnout no Brasil. PSICO, 39, 152-158.

Carlotto, M. S., Dias, S. R. S., Batista, J. B. V., & Diehl, L. (2015). O papel mediador da autoeficácia na relação entre a sobrecarga de trabalho e as dimensões de Burnout em professores. Psico-USF, 20, 13-23. Recuperado de http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1413-82712015200102

Cebrià-Andreu, J. (2005). El síndrome de desgaste profesional como problema de salud pública. Gaceta Sanitária, 19, 470-470. Recuperado de http://dx.doi.org/10.1157/13082793

Cohen, J. (1992). A power primer. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 155-159. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.112.1.155

Costa, F. R. C. P., & Rocha, R. (2013). Fatores estressores no contexto de trabalho docente. Revista Ciências Humanas, 6, 18-43.

Diehl, L., & Carlotto, M. S. (2014). Knowledge of teachers about the burnout syndrome: Process, risk factors and consequences. Psicologia em Estudo, 19, 741-752. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1413-73722455415

Elloy, D., Everett, J. E., & Flynn, W. R. (1991). An examination of the correlates of job involvement. Group and Organization Studies, 16, 160-177. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/105960119101600204

Farber, B. A. (1991). Crisis in education. Stress and burnout in the American teacher. São Francisco: Jossey-Bass Inc.

Fernandes, M. H., & Rocha, V. M. (2009). Impact of the psychosocial aspects of work on the quality of life of teachers. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, 31, 15-20. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1516-44462009000100005

Field, A. P. (2009). Discovering statistics using SPSS. London: Sage Publications Inc.

Figueiredo-Ferraz, H., Gil-Monte, P. R., & Grau-Alberola, E. (2009). Prevalencia del síndrome de quemarse por el trabajo (burnout) en una muestra de maestros portugueses. Aletheia, 29, 6-15.

Gil-Monte, P. R. (2005). El síndrome de quemarse por el trabajo (burnout): Una enfermidad laboral en la sociedad del bienestar. Madrid: Pirâmide.

Gil-Monte, P. R. (2008). El síndrome de quemarse por el trabajo (burnout) como fenómeno transcultural. Informació Psicológica, 91-92, 4-11.

Gil-Monte, P. R. (2011). CESQT: Cuestionario para la evaluación del síndrome de quemarse por el trabajo. Madrid: TEA.

Gil-Monte, P. R. (2012). The influence of guilt on the relationship between burnout and de-pression. European Psychologist, 17, 231-236. doi: 10.1027/1016-9040/a000096

Gil-Monte, P. R., Carlotto, M. S., & Câmara, S. (2010). Validation of the Brazilian version of the “Spanish Burnout Inventory” in teachers. Revista de Saúde Pública, 44, 140-147. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0034-89102010000100015

Gil-Monte, P. R., Carlotto, M. S., & Câmara, S. G. (2011). Prevalência de burnout em uma amostra de professores brasileiros. European Journal of Psychiatry, 25, 205-212.

Guglielmi, R. S., & Tatrow, K. (1998). Occupational stress, burnout, and health in teachers: A methodological and theoretical analysis. Review of Educational Research, 68, 61-69.

Guidetti, G., Viotti, S., Gil-Monte, P. R., & Converso, D. (2017). Feeling guilty or not guilty. Identifying burnout profiles among Italian Teachers. Current Psychology, 1-12. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12144-016-9556-6

Ho, S. K. (2016). Relationships among humour, self-esteem, and social support to burnout in school teachers. Social Psychology of Education, 19, 41-59. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11218-015-9309-7

Jani, B. (2017). Stress of teachers working at primary school in Kalahandi. International Education & Research Journal, 3, 71-74.

Kahn, J. H., Schneider, K. T., Jenkins-Henkelman, T. M., & Moyle, L. L. (2006). Emotional social support and job burnout among high-school teachers: is it all due to dispositional affectivity?. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27, 793-807. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.397

Khosla, M. (2013). Gender, locale and type of institution as determinents of professional burnout among elementary school teachers. Edubeam Multidisciplinary Online Research Journal, X, 1-18.

Klusmann, U., Kunter, M., Trautwein, U., Lüdtke, O., & Baumert, J. (2008). Engagement and emotional exhaustion in teachers: Does the school context make a difference? Applied Psychology: An International Review, 57(Suppl.), 127-151. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.2008.00358.x

Konukman, F., Agbuğa, B., Erdoğan, Ş., Zorba, E., Demirhan, G., & Yılmaz, I. (2010). Teacher-coach role conflict in school-based physical education in USA: A literature review and suggestions for the future. Biomedical Human Kinetics, 2, 19-24. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/v10101-010-0005-y

Kroupis, I., Kourtessis, Th., Kouli, O., Tzetzis, G., Derri, V., & Mavrommatis, G. (2017). Job satisfaction and burnout among Greek P.E. teachers: A comparison of educational sectors, level and gender. CCD. Cultura_Ciencia_Deporte, 12(34), 5-14. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.12800/ccd.v12i34.827

Leiter, M. P., Bakker, A. B., & Maslach, C. (2014). Burnout at work. New York: Taylor & Francis.

López, J. M. O., Bolaño, C. C., Mariño, M. J. S., & Pol, E. V. E. (2010). Exploring stress, burnout, and job dissatisfaction in secondary school teachers. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, 10, 107-123.

Manzano-Garcia, G., & Ayala-Calvo, J. C. (2013). New perspectives: Towards an integration of the concept “burnout” and its explanatory models. Anales de Psicología, 29, 800-809. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.6018/analesps.29.3.145241

Maranda, M.-F., Viviers, S., & Deslauriers, J.-S. (2014). “Escola em sofrimento”: Pesquisa-ação sobre situações de trabalho de risco para a saúde mental em meio escolar. Cadernos de Psicologia Social do Trabalho, 17, 141-152. doi: 10.11606/issn.1981-0490.v17ispe1p141-151

Maslach, C., & Goldberg, J. (1998). Prevention of burnout: News perspectives. Applied & Preventive Psychology, 7, 63-74. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0962-1849(98)80022-X

Maslach, C., & Jackson, S. E. (1981). The measurement of experienced burnout. Journal of Occupational Behavior, 2, 99-113. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.4030020205

Maslach, C., & Leiter, M. P. (2008). Early predictors of job burnout and engagement. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93, 498-512. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.93.3.498

Maslach, C., Schaufeli, W. B., & Leiter, M. P. (2001). Job burnout. Annual Review Psychology, 52, 397-422. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.397

Masmoudi, R., Trigui, D., Ellouze, S., Sellami, R., Baati, I., Feki, I., & Masmoudi, J. (2016). Burnout and associated factors among Tunisian teachers. European Psychiatry, 33, 796-797. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpsy.2016.01.2393

McCarthy, C. J., Lambert, R. G., O’Donnell, M., & Melendres, L. T. (2009). The relation of elementary teachers’ experience, stress, and coping resources to burnout symptoms. The Elementary School Journal, 109, 282-300.

McMichael, A. J. (1976). Standardized mortality ratios and the “healthy worker effect”: Scratching beneath the surface. Journal of Occupational Medicine, 18, 165-168. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00043764-197603000-00009

Mearns, J., & Cain, J. E. (2003). Relationships between teachers’ occupational stress and their burnout and distress: Roles of coping and negative mood regulation expectancies. Anxiety, Stress and Coping, 16, 71-82. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1061580021000057040

Mercado-Salgado, P., & Gil-Monte, P. R. (2010). Influencia del compromiso organizacional en la relación entre conflictos interpersonales y el síndrome de quemarse por el trabajo (burnout) en profesionales de servicios (salud y educación). Innovar Revista de Ciencias Administrativas y Sociales, 20(38), 161-174.

Nwikina, L., & Nwanekezi, A. (2010). Management of job-related teacher burnout in Nigerian schools. Academia Arena, 2. Retrieved from http://sciencepub.net/academia/aa0207/06_3535aa0207_31_38.pdf

Olivier, M., & Williams, E. (2005). Teaching the mentally handicapped child: Challenges teachers are facing. The International Journal of Special Education, 20, 19-31.

Papastylianou, A., Kaila, M., & Polychronopoulos, M. (2009). Teachers’ burnout, depression, role ambiguity and conflict. Social Psychology of Education: An International Journal, 12, 295-314. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11218-008-9086-7

Prilleltensky, I., Neff, M., & Bessell, A. (2016). Teacher stress: What it is, why it’s important, how it can be alleviated. Theory Into Practice, 55, 104-111. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00405841.2016.1148986

Rabasa, B., Figueiredo-Ferraz, H., Gil-Monte, P. R., & Llorca-Pellicer, M. (2016). The role of guilt in the relationship between teacher’s job burnout syndrome and the inclination toward absenteeism. Revista de Psicodidáctica, 21, 103-119. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/0.1387/RevPsicodidact.13076

Schwab, R. L., & Iwanicki, E. F. (1982). Who are our burned out teachers?. Educational Research Quaterly, 7(2), 5-16.

Skaalvik, E. M., & Skaalvik, S. (2017). Still motivated to teach? A study of school context variables, stress and job satisfaction among teachers in senior high school. Social Psychology of Education, 20, 15-37. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11218-016-9363-9

Smetackovaa, I. (2017). Self-efficacy and burnout syndrome among teachers. The European Journal of Social and Behavioural Sciences EJSBS, XX. Retrieved from https://www.futureacademy.org.uk/files/images/upload/ejsbs219.pdf

Stoeber, J., & Rennert, D. (2008). Perfectionism in school teachers: Relations with stress appraisals, coping styles, and burnout. Anxiety, Stress and Coping, 21, 37-53. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1080/10615800701742461

Unda, S. (2010). Estudio de prevalencia del Síndrome de Quemarse por el Trabajo (SQT) y su asociación con sobrecarga y autoeficacia en maestros de primaria de la ciudad de México. Ciencia & Trabajo, 12(35), 257-262.

World Health Organization [WHO]. (2001). The World Health Report 2001. Mental health: New understanding, new hope. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/whr/2001/en/

Yong, Z., & Yue, Y. (2007). Causes for burnout among secondary and elementary school teachers and preventive strategies. Chinese Education and Society, 40(5), 78-85. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.2753/CED1061-1932400508

Zhou, Y., & Wen, J. X. (2007). The burnout phenomenon of teachers under various conflicts. Education Review, 4, 37-44.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.14417/ap.1471

Apontamentos

  • Não há apontamentos.


Nº ERC: 107494 | ISSN (in print): 0870-8231 | ISSN (online): 1646-6020 | Copyright © ISPA - CRL, 2012 | Rua Jardim do Tabaco, 34, 1149-041 Lisboa | NIF: 501313672 | O portal e metadados estão licenciados sob a licença Creative Commons CC BY-NC