Profiles of father's relative involvement and children’s socio-emocional adjustment during preschool

Rita Amaral, Lígia Monteiro, Carolina Santos


The present study aimed to identify profiles of fathers on the basis of their Involvement in several activities (care and socialization) related to children’s daily life testing, subsequently, if there were differences in children’s social adjustment. Two-hundred and eighty-three nuclear families with preschool age children (139 boys) participated in the study. Two profiles were identified: Profile 1 – playmates; and Profile 2 – caregivers and playmates. The fathers in Profile 2 participated significantly more in all the analyzed activities. Differences were found between profiles regarding caregivers’ educational levels (higher in Profile 2), and fathers’ working hours (higher in Profile 1). For 94 of these children their social adjustment was described by the pre-school teachers. Children whose fathers were more involved in care and socialization activities (Profile 2) had lower scores of anxious social withdrawal behaviors in the peer group. The results support the need to consider both caregivers when planning programs to promote children’s well-being and adjustment.


Social adjustment, Pre-school, Relative father involvement.


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