Multidimensional Factor Structure of the Modified Child Rearing Practices Report questionnaire (CRPR-Q) in a sample of Portuguese mothers: A bifactor approach

Olívia Ribeiro, Maryse Guedes, Manuela Veríssimo, Kenneth H. Rubin, António J. Santos


Parental attitudes toward child socialization influence their child-rearing practices, the quality of parent-child relationships, and children’s developmental outcomes. The Modified Child Rearing Practices Questionnaire (CRPR-Q) has been widely used to assess parenting practices across children’s development. However, the few studies investigating its two-factorial structure (nurturance and restrictiveness) have shown inconsistent findings and have not explored measurement invariance across children’s sex and age groups. The aims of this study were to (1) further investigate the factorial structure of the CRPR-Q, by using bifactor solutions (b-confirmatory factor analysis [B-CFA] and b-exploratory structural equation modeling [B-ESEM]) and (2) examine the measurement invariance of CRPR-Q across children’s sex and age groups. A community sample of 589 Portuguese mothers of children aged 3 to 15 years completed the CRPR-Q. Our findings revealed that the B-ESEM model best fit the data. A clear differentiation between the two a priori factors (nurturance and restrictiveness) was found. However, our findings suggest the need to control for content specificity and rely on a broader perspective regarding the nurturance factor. Measurement invariance was observed across children’s sex but not across children’s age groups. These findings contribute to a more in-depth understanding of the underlying relationships among the CRPR-Q items.


Child-rearing attitudes and practices, Bifactor exploratory structural equation modeling, Measurement invariance, Child’s sex, Child’s age.

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