Positive Traits Inventory: Psychometric analyses of a short form

Guadalupe de la Iglesia, Alejandro Castro Solano, Stephen Gallagher


The aim of this paper was generating a short form of the Positive Traits Inventory (PTI-5-SF) by means of three consecutive studies, using a cross-sectional design. The first study tested the psychometric properties of the shorter version of PTI-5. Results showed that a 25-item scale was appropriate to capture the five positive traits of the Positive Personality Model (PPM). In the second
study, the PTI-5-SF was used to replicate the analyses of PPM traits and different job outcomes, such as performance, satisfaction, and well-being. Here we found that the PPM traits, as measured by the
short form, increased the variance explained by the normal traits in all job outcomes. The third study replicated the explicative model of academic achievement that included PPM traits as background variables. Fit indexes and effects were as expected and replicated the results found with the long form. The PTI-5-SF can be recommended as an appropriate measure of PPM traits since its psychometric properties proved to be adequate and the results obtained with the long form were appropriately replicated with the short form.


Positive traits, Positive personality model, Job outcomes, Academic achievement.

Full Text:



American Psychiatric Association [APA]. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). American Psyquiatric Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596

Anderson, J. R., Guan, Y., & Koc, Y. (2016). The academic adjustment scale: Measuring the adjustment of permanent resident or sojourner students. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 54, 68-76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2016.07.006

Ayyash-Abdo, H., & Sánchez-Ruiz, M. J. (2012). Subjective wellbeing and its relationship with academic achievement and multilinguality among Lebanese university students. International Journal of Psychology, 47(3), 192-202. https://doi.org/10.1080/00207594.2011.614616

Bailey, T. H., & Phillips, L. J. (2015). The influence of motivation and adaptation on students’ subjective wellbeing, meaning in life and academic performance. Higher Education Research and Development, 35(2), 201-216. https://doi.org/10.1080/07294360.2015.1087474

Berger, C., Alcalay, L., Torretti, A., & Milicic, N. (2011). Socio-emotional well-being and academic achievement: Evidence from a multilevel approach. Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica, 24(2), 344-351.

Castro Solano, A., & Casullo, M. M. (2001). Rasgos de personalidad, bienestar psicológico y rendimiento académico en adolescentes Argentinos [Personality traits, psychological well-being and academic achievement in Argentinean adolescents]. Interdisiplinaria Revista de Psicología y Ciencias Afines, 18(1),


Casullo, M. M., & Castro Solano, A. (1999). Síntomas psicopatológicos en estudiantes adolescentes argentinos. Aportaciones del SCL-90-R [Psychopathological symptoms in Argentinean adolescents. Contribution of SCL-90-R]. Anuario de Investigaciones, 7, 147-157.

Chang, E. C., Rand, K. L., & Strunk, D. R. (2020). Optimism and risk for job burnout among working college students: Stress as a mediator. Personality and Individual Differences, 29(2), 255-263.


Clark, L. A., Livesley, W. J., & Morey, L. (1997). Personality disorder assessment: The challenge of construct validity. Journal of Personality Disorders, 11, 205-231. https://doi.org/10.1521/pedi.1997.11.3.205

Cloninger, C. R. (2000). A practical way to diagnosis personality disorders: A proposal. Journal of Personality Disorders, 14, 99-108. https://doi.org/10.1521/pedi.2000.14.2.99

Cosentino, A. C., & Castro Solano, A. (2017). The High Five: Associations of the five positive factors with the Big Five and well-being. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 1250. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01250

Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R. (1985). The NEO Personality Inventory Manual. Psychological Assessment Resources.

de la Iglesia, G., & Castro Solano, A. (2018). The Positive Personality Model (PPM): A new conceptual framework for personality assessment. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 2025. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02027

de la Iglesia, G., & Castro Solano, A. (2019a). Academic achievement in college students: What role does the Positive Personality Model play?. Problems of Education in the 21st Century, 77(5), 572-583. https://doi.org/10.33225/pec/19.77.572

de la Iglesia, G., & Castro Solano, A. (2019b). Positive Personality Model: Which traits relate to complete mental health as conceived by the Dual Factor Model?. Psychological Thought, 12(2), 202-213.


de la Iglesia, G., Lupano Perugini, M. L., & Castro Solano, A. (2019). Positive Personality Model: Su asociación al funcionamiento óptimo en trabajadores activos [Positive Personality Model: Its relation to optimal functioning in active workers]. Revista de Psicología, 37(2), 425-449.

De Raad, B., Barelds, D. P. H., Levert, E., Ostendorf, F., Mlacić, B., Di Blas, L., Hrebícková, M., Szirmák, Z., Szarota, P., Perugini, M., Church, T., & Katigbak, M. S. (2010). Only three factors of personality description are fully replicable across languages: A comparison of 14 trait taxonomies. Journal of Personality and

Social Psychology, 98(1), 160-173. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0017184

Derogatis, L. R. (1975). The SCL-90-R. Clinical Psychometric Research.

Donnellan, M. B., Oswald, F. L., Baird, B. M., & Lucas, R. E. (2006). The Mini-IPIP Scales: Tiny-yet-effective measures of the Big Five Factors of Personality. Psychological Assessment, 18(2), 192-203.


Drozd, F., Mork, L., Nielsen, B., Raeder, S., & Bjørkli, C. A. (2014). Better days – A randomized controlled trial of an internet-based positive psychology intervention. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 9(5), 377-388. https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2014.910822

Duan, W., Ho, S. M. Y., Yu, B., Tang, X., Zhang, Y., Li, T., & Yuen, T. (2012). Factor structure of the Chinese virtues questionnaire. Research on Social Work Practice, 22(6), 680-688.


Eidman, L., & de la Iglesia, G. (2021a). Positive personality model en población clínica. Acta de Investigación en Psicología, 11(3), 48-64. https://doi.org/10.22201/fpsi.20074719e.2021.3.392

Eidman, L., & de la Iglesia, G. (2021b). Positive personality model and psychotherapy progress. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 51(3), 251-258.

Elston, F., & Boniwell, I. (2011). A grounded theory study of the value derived by women in financial services through a coaching intervention to help them identify their strengths and practice using them in the workplace. International Coaching Psychology Review, 6(1), 16-32.

Gander, F., Proyer, R. T., Ruch, W., & Wyss, T. (2012). Strength-based positive interventions: Further evidence for their potential in enhancing well-being. Journal of Happiness Studies, 14, 1241-1259. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-012-9380-0

Góngora, V., & Castro Solano, A. (2017). Pathological personality traits (DSM-5), risk factors and mental health. SAGE Open, 7(3), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244017725129

Gosling, S. D., Rentfrow, P. J., & Swann, W. B. (2003). A very brief measure of the Big-Five personality domains. Journal of Research in Personality, 37, 504-528.

Gunderson, J. G. (1979). The relatedness of borderline to schizophrenic disorders. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 5, 17-23.

Huppert, F. A., & So, T. T. C. (2013). Flourishing across Europe: Application of a new conceptual framework for defining well-Being. Social Indicators Research, 110(3), 837-861. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-011-9966-7

John, O. P., Donahue, E. M., & Kentle, R. L. (1991). The “Big Five” Inventory – Versions 4a and 54. University of California, Berkeley, Institute of Personality and Social Research.

Kamphorst, J. C., Hofman, W. H. A., Jansen, E. P. W. A., & Terlouw, C. (2012). Een algemene benadering werkt niet. Disciplinaire verschillen als verklaring van studievoortgang in het hoger onderwijs [A general approach does not work. Disciplinary differences as an explanation of study progress in higher education]. Pedagogische Studiën, 89(1), 20-38.

Kemper, C. J., Trapp, S., Kathmann, N., Samuel, D. B., & Ziegler, M. (2018). Short versus long scales in clinical assessment: Exploring the trade-off between resources saved and psychometric quality lost using two measures of obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Assessment, 26(5), 767-782.

Kerr, S., Johnson, V. K., Gans, S. E., & Krumrine, J. (2004). Predicting adjustment during the transition to college: Alexithymia, perceived stress, and psychological symptoms. Journal of College Student Development, 45(6), 593-611. https://doi.org/10.1353/csd.2004.0068

Keyes, C. L. M. (2005). Mental Illness and/or mental health? Investigating axioms of the complete state model of health. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73(3), 539-548. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.73.3.539

Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. The Guilford Press.

Krueger, R. F., Derringer, J., Markon, K. E., Watson, D., & Skodol, A. E. (2013). The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 – Brief Form (PID-5-BF) – Adult. American Psychiatric Association.

Lavy, S., & Littman-Ovadia, H. (2017). My better self: Using strengths at work and work productivity, organizational citizenship behavior and satisfaction. Journal of Career Development, 44(2), 95-109. https://doi.org/10.1177/0894845316634056

Leary, T. (1957). Interpersonal diagnosis of personality. Ronald Press.

Leising, D., Rogers, K., & Ostner, J. (2009). The undisordered personality: Normative assumptions underlying personality disorder diagnoses. Review of General Psychology, 13(3), 230-241.


Lounsbury, J. W., Fisher, L. A., Levy, J. J., & Welsh, D. P. (2009). Investigation of character strengths in relation to the academic success of college students. Individual Differences Research, 7(1), 52-69.

Lupano Perugini, M. L., de la Iglesia, G., Castro Solano, A., & Keyes, C. L. M. (2017). The Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF) in the Argentinean context: Confirmatory factor analysis and measurement invariance. Europe’s Journal of Psychology, 13(1), 93-108. https://doi.org/10.5964/ejop.v13i1.1163

Martínez Martí, M. L., & Ruch, W. (2014). Character strengths and well-being across the life span: Data from a representative sample of German-speaking adults living in Switzerland. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 1253. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01253

Meyers, M. C., & van Woerkom, M. (2014). Effects of a Strengths intervention on work engagement and burnout: Positive affect as a mediator. Academy of Management Proceedings, 2014(1), 15558-15563. https://doi.org/10.5465/AMBPP.2014.15558abstract

Millon, T. (1996). Disorders of personality. Wiley & Sons.

Millon, T. (2011). Disorders of personality (3rd ed.). Wiley & Sons.

Mongrain, M., & Anselmo-Matthews, T. (2012). Do positive psychology exercises work? A replication of Seligman et al. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 68(4), 382-389. https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.21839

Morales-Vives, F., De Raad, B., & Vigil-Colet, A. (2014). Psycho-lexically based virtue factors in Spain and their relation with personality traits. The Journal of General Psychology, 141(4), 297-325. https://doi.org/10.1080/00221309.2014.938719

Mukherjee, M., McKinney, L., Hagedorn, L. S., Purnamasari, A., & Martinez, F. S. (2016). Stretching every dollar: The impact of personal financial stress on the enrollment behaviors of working and nonworking community college students. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 41(9), 551-565.


Park, N., & Peterson, C. (2008). Positive psychology and character strengths: Application to strengths-based school counseling. Professional School Counseling, 12(2), 85-92. https://doi.org/10.5330/PSC.n.2010-12.85

Park, N., & Peterson, C. (2009a). Character strengths: Research and practice. Journal of College and Character, 10(4), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.2202/1940-1639.1042

Park, N., & Peterson, C. (2009b). Strengths of character in schools. In R. Gilman, E. S. Huebner, & M. J. Furlong (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology in schools (pp. 65-76). Routledge.

Perera, H. N., & DiGiacomo, M. (2015). The role of trait emotional intelligence in academic performance during the university transition: An integrative model of mediation via social support, coping, and adjustment. Personality and Individual Differences, 83, 208-213. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2015.04.001

Perera, H. N., McIlveen, P., & Oliver, M. E. (2015). The mediating roles of coping and adjustment in the relationship between personality and academic achievement. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 85(3), 440-457. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjep.12084

Petersen, I., Louw, J., & Dumont, K. (2009). Adjustment to university and academic performance among disadvantaged students in South-Africa. Educational Psychology, 29(1), 99-115.


Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2004). Character strengths and virtues: A handbook and classification. American Psychological Association/Oxford University Press.

Rinties, B., Beausaert, S., Grohnert, T., Niemantsverdriet, S., & Kommers, P. (2012). Understanding academic performance of international students: The role of ethnicity, academic and social integration. Higher Education, 63(6), 685-700. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-011-9468-1

Robins, R. W., Hendin, H. M., & Trzesniewski, K. H. (2001). Measuring global self-esteem: Construct validation of a single-item measure and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 151-161.

Sánchez, R. O., & Ledesma, R. D. (2009). Análisis psicométrico del Inventario de Síntomas Revisado (SCL-90-R) en población clínica [Psychometric analysis of the Revised Symptom Checklist (SCL-90-R)]. Revista Argentina de Clinica Psicologica, 18, 265-274.

Schumaker, R. E., & Lomax, R. G. (2016). A beginner’s guide to structural equation modeling. Routledge.

Seligman, M. E. P., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2014). Positive psychology: An introduction. In M. Csikszentmihalyi (Ed.), Flow and the foundations of positive psychology (pp. 279-298). Springer.


Seligman, M. E. P., Steen, T. A., Park, N., & Peterson, C. (2005). Positive psychology progress: Empirical validation of interventions. American Psychologist, 60, 410-421.


Stanton, J. M., Sinar, E. F., Balzer, W. K., & Smith, P. C. (2002). Issues and strategies for reducing the length of self report scales. Personnel Psychology, 55(1), 167-194.

Strack, S., & Lorr, M. (1994). Differentiating normal and abnormal personalities. Springer.

Tambs, K., & Røysamb, E. (2014). Selection of questions to short-form versions of original psychometric instruments in MoBa. Norsk Epidemiologi, 24(1-2), 195-201.


Trull, T. J., & Durrett, C. A. (2005). Categorical and dimensional models of personality disorder. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 1, 355-380. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.1.102803.144009

van Rooij, E. C. M., Jansen, E. P. W. A., & van de Grift, W. J. C. M. (2018). First-year university students’ academic success: The importance of academic adjustment. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 33(4), 749-767. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10212-017-0347-8

Wade, D. T., & Halligan, P. W. (2004). Do biomedical models of illness make for good healthcare systems?. BMJ, 329, 1398-1401.

Wagner, L., & Ruch, W. (2015). Good character at school: Positive classroom behavior mediates the link between character strengths and school achievement. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 610.


Widiger, T. A., & Samuel, D. B. (2005). Diagnostic categories or dimensions: A question for DSM-V. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114(4), 494-504.


Widiger, T. A., Sirovatka, P. J., Regier, D. A., & Simonsen, E. (2006). Dimensional models of personality disorders: Refining the research agenda for DSM-V. American Psychiatric Association.

Wood, A. M., Linley, P. A., Matlby, J., Kashdan, T. B., & Hurling, R. (2011). Using personal and psychological strengths leads to increases in well-being over time: A longitudinal study and the development of the strengths use questionnaire. Personality and Individual Differences, 50, 15-19.


World Health Organization [WHO]. (2014). Basic documents (48th ed.). WHO Press.

Young, K. C., Kashdan, T. B., & Macatee, R. (2014). Strength balance and implicit strength measurement: New considerations for research on strengths of character. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 10(1), 17-24.


Zychinski, K. E., & Polo, A. J. (2011). Academic achievement and depressive symptoms in low-income Latino youth. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 21(4), 565-577. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-011-9509-5

DOI: https://doi.org/10.14417/ap.1769


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Nº ERC: 107494 | ISSN (in print): 0870-8231 | ISSN (online): 1646-6020 | Copyright © ISPA - CRL, 2012 | Rua Jardim do Tabaco, 34, 1149-041 Lisboa | NIF: 501313672 | The portal and metadata are licensed under the license Creative Commons CC BY-NC