Teoria da mente e pensamento contrafactual em crianças de baixo nível socioeconómico

Célia Rasga, Ana Cristina Quelhas, Marta Couto, João Marques


O nosso trabalho propõe explorar a compreensão das crianças de baixo nível socioeconómico acerca das razões que os outros têm para as acções, ou seja, pretendemos explorar o efeito do conhecimento sobre as razões para as acções, aquando de raciocínios contrafactuais e de falsas crenças, ampliando-o ao desenvolvimento das crianças. Trabalhos anteriores mostraram que as pessoas tendem a pensar sobre as acções de forma diferente quando têm conhecimentos sobre as razões para uma acção. Um passo importante para a compreensão das acções de outras pessoas é o raciocínio sobre as suas intenções (Juhos, Quelhas, & Byrne, 2015; Walsh & Byrne, 2007).

Crianças de 6 e 8 anos foram testadas com uma nova tarefa: a tarefa de mudanças de intenções, a qual analisou cenários onde um actor tem uma razão inicial (desejo ou obrigação) para uma acção, que é posteriormente alterada. Os resultados mostraram que as crianças de 6 anos cometem mais erros nas inferências de falsas crenças do que nas inferências contrafactuais, uma vez que estas crianças tendem a centrar-se mais nos desejos aquando de inferências de falsas crenças. Estes resultados contribuem para a discussão aberta sobre a relação entre o pensamento contrafactual e a teoria da mente, como também traz alguma luz sobre como as crianças pensam as diferentes razões para as acções.


Teoria da Mente, Pensamento Contrafactual, Intenções, Crianças


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.14417/ap.1186


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