Translation and validation of two questionnaires assessing fear of flying for Portuguese language

Catarina Mestre, António Lopes, Cátia Reis, Sara Lemos da Costa, Cristina Albuquerque


The aim of this study was to translate the FAS and FAM into Portuguese language and to assess its internal consistency, convergent and divergent validities, in a sample of Portuguese speaking population.

Both scales were validated in 960 individuals, 890 from the general population and 70 flying phobics. The psychometric methods used were exploratory factor analysis with varimax rotation for factor structure, Cronbach’s α coefficient for internal consistency, Pearson’s correlations for divergent and convergent validities, and finally Mann-Whitney test also for divergent validity.

Results confirmed FAS-PT as a 3 factor model and FAM-PT as a 2 factor model, like the original versions. Cronbach’s α coefficient showed excellent values for FAS-PT (.99) and FAM-PT (.97).

Convergent validity showed a strong correlation in both scales, with r values between .75 and .87. In opposite, divergent validity presented a poor correlation in both scales, with r values between .28 and .38.

The validity and reliability of these scales were established, enabling their use within Portuguese language speakers, for investigation and clinical settings.

Nevertheless, this study should be replicated in other samples and other forms of validity should be explored.



Flight anxiaty situations questionnaire, Flight anxiety modality questionnaire, Translation, Validation, Portuguese.


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